Sunday, July 23, 2017

Questions from Patreon: Why are you adding protein and panthenol into the heated water phase?

On my Patreon feed, Jennifer asked:  I saw (and like) the recipe you posted on the facial lotion (rosehip/calendula), and saw that you put the protein and panthenol in the hot water phase.  Most of your earlier posts put these two in the cool down phase.  Does it matter which phase?  

It does and it doesn't: It all comes down to how the ingredient you're using can tolerate heat. 

Quite some time ago - shortly after starting the blog, if I recall - I read a post on The Dish Forum by the mighty LabRat stating that hydrolyzed proteins should go into the heated water phase as they could handle heat. As well, they might be a vehicle for contamination, so heating them is a good idea. I altered my practice then, although there are still some hydrolyzed proteins I encounter that shouldn't be heated, so I put them in the cool down phase. I will make a point of mentioning they are not great in the heat when you see them in the future.

As for panthenol, the version I've been using - the liquid one - isn't heat stable, so it goes into the cool down phase. For my recipes from the HSCG conference, which was sponsored by the always lovely Jen from Lotioncrafter*, I've been using powdered panthenol, which is heat stable.

You may notice in the future that I'm adding dimethicone or cyclomethicone to a phase other than the cool down phase. This is because I'll be using different ones, and some of those can handle heat.

Related posts:
How do you know when to include an ingredient?

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Recipes from the 2017 HSCG conference: Rosehip & calendula moisturizer (part two)

On Monday, we met a new emulsifier, Simulgreen 18-2, and yesterday we created a facial moisturizer with it. Let's spend some time looking at why I chose the ingredients I chose!

We have three phases: the heated water phase, which contains anything that is water soluble and can stand heat; the heated oil phase, which contains everything oil soluble that can stand heat; and the cool down phase, into which we put everything else.

Related posts:
How do you know into which phase you should add an ingredient?
Emulsification: What's that then?

As one of my humectants, I used hyaluronic acid at 0.1% in the heated water phase. I could add it at 0.1% to the water phase, or I could make the gel and use that at 10%, which works out to 0.1% active ingredient. (This formula is originally from Lotioncrafter and is used here with permission.)

BASIC HYALURONIC ACID GEL
98.5% distilled water
1% LMW hyaluronic acid powder
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

I sprinkled in the hyaluronic acid powder, mixed well by hand until the powder was wet, then left it alone for three hours and came back to a lovely looking gel! It should be completely clear and doesn’t feel sticky on your skin. You can use this neat or use this in products. (Using 10% hyaluronic acid gel = 0.1% hyaluronic acid in your product.)

I'm having a love affair with propanediol 1,3, a naturally derived substitute for propylene glycol that can be used at up to 20% in your water phase. As a humectant, it's dry and non-sticky feeling compared to glycerin. (I've been using it in so many different things as a humectant from micellar waters to lotions, and I love it so much!)

If two humectants are good, three might be better, so let's add some sodium lactate at 2%! (I'm using the 100% powder in this product, but you can use the 60% liquid, if that's what you have.)

You know I love my hydrolyzed proteins, so I've added hydrolyzed quinoa protein as a film former and skin conditioner. And I have to have allantoin at 0.5% as it's a great barrier protector as well as skin soother.

I’m a huge fan of panthenol, in this case powdered dl-Panthenol, Vitamin B5, which has been shown to help increase skin hydration and behave as a humectant and anti-inflammatory while helping skin’s wound healing properties. And I'm adding liquid calendula extract at 5% as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant.

In my heated oil phase, I have to have olive derived squalane, part of the unsaponifiable part of olive oil found in our skin so it sinks in quickly to moisturize. I've been using this as the base of just about every facial product I make as it's light and non-greasy. It leaves a nice dewy-ness to my skin that I don't seem to get with other oils.

As my oil, I like unrefined rosehip seed oil as it contains beta carotene, the precursor to Vitamin A, that helps with hyperpigmentation of our skin to promote a more uniform skin colour. It's light and non-greasy, which is a great thing for moisturizers! I used 5% as it's quite brightly orange, and I don't want to turn this into a custard! (Although facial custard does sound kinda nice, eh? Hmm...)

I added Sepilift DPHP (INCI: Dipalmitoyl hydroxyproline), an ECOcert and Natrue certified ingredient at 1% to 2% in the heated oil phase as an anti-aging ingredient that may stimulate collagen synthesis to plump skin and lips.

Into the cool down phase, I added Antarcticine* (INCI: Water, Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract, Salicylic Acid, Sodium Hydroxide), an ECOcert ingredient used at 3% to 5% to increase skin hydration, increase levels of collagen and elastin to reduce the depth and appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, as well as enhance wound healing.

And I added Regu-scence* (INCI: Asparagus Officinalis Stem Extract), an ECOcert ingredient used at 1% to 3% in the cool down phase to help create a more even skin tone and reduce the signs of aging, like thinner skin.

As the emulsifier, I chose Simulgreen 18-2 (INCI: Hydroxystearyl Alcohol and Hydroxystearyl Glucoside), which we met yesterday. To make it more stable, I need to add a fatty alcohol like cetyl alcohol or cetearyl alcohol. I added behenyl alcohol as a thickener and stabilizer at 2% in the heated oil phase as I like the dry, matte feeling it offers. You could use either of the other fatty alcohols, if you wish. Cetyl will make it a bit more oily - not a huge amount, but enough that you'll notice it - and cetearyl will make it a bit thicker and waxier.

Any time we use water, we need to use a preservative. My favourite is liquid Germall plus at 0.5% in the cool down phase as it’s a broad spectrum preservative that will help combat microbes like bacteria, yeast, and mold.

I know some of you are thinking about changing the preservative. You can do that, but make sure it's a broad spectrum preservative - meaning one that will combat all the potential contamination - and it can work with the ingredients we're using. Check out the preservative comparison chart in this post or the preservatives section to make sure it'll work with this formula. I know how it works with liquid Germall Plus as that's how I've made this quite a few times, but there's no guarantee it'll work with what you have. 

As a note, Jen from Lotioncrafter has been working with this moisturizer quite a lot. She has done a freeze-thaw test with it - she froze it and let it thaw three times to see if it would remain stable, and it did! - and has done a heated test with it. Through it all, this moisturizer passed with flying colours!

My presentation at the HSCG conference was very kindly sponsored by Lotioncrafter*. I'm so grateful to them for doing so much work to make sure it went well! Please note that I provide these links as a way of showing my gratitude. They aren't affiliate links, and I get nothing if you click through and buy anything. 

Here are the links to the ingredients at Lotioncrafter
Allantoin
Antarcticine
Behenyl alcohol
Calendula extract
Hyaluronic acid, LMW
Hydrolyzed quinoa protein
Liquid Germall Plus
Panthenol
Propanediol 1,3
Regu-scence
Rosehip seed oil, unrefined
Sepilift DPHP
Simulgreen 18-2
Sodium lactate, powder
Squalane, olive
Squalane, Neoessence

As a note, if you're a $10 subscriber to my Patreon page, Lotioncrafter is offering a 5% discount that's good to the end of the year, so if you're thinking about buying some ingredients, consider that this might be something that pays for itself! :-)

Join me tomorrow as we take a look at another recipe using Simulgreen 18-2!

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Recipes from the 2017 HSCG conference: Rosehip & calendula moisturizer (part one)

Yesterday, we met a neat new emulsifier, Simulgreen 18-2. Let's take a look at the facial moisturizer I created for my demonstration at the 2017 Handcrafted Soap & Cosmetics Guild conference, which was very kindly sponsored by Lotioncrafter. There are so many cool things about this formula, but the best might be that all the ingredients are green or ECOcert, except one - liquid Germall Plus - so you could call this 99.5% natural! (I bet you didn't expect that from me, eh?)

I want this facial moisturizer to feel light and less greasy on my skin, 'cause the last thing I want is a really shiny, oily face! I'll choose my ingredients with that goal in mind. I want to include lovely humectants to hydrate my skin and lovely oils to moisturize. I'll include some extracts and cosmeceuticals to offer other benefits to my skin.

NATURAL CALENDULA & ROSEHIP SEED OIL MOISTURIZER
HEATED WATER PHASE
46% distilled water
10% hyaluronic acid gel (0.1% HA LMW)
3% propanediol 1,3
5% calendula extract (water soluble)
1% sodium lactate (powder)
2% hydrolyzed quinoa protein
2% panthenol (powder)
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
10% squalane
5% rosehip seed oil
4% Simulgreen 18-2
2% behenyl alcohol
1% Sepilift DPHP

COOL DOWN PHASE
5% Antarcticine
2% Regu-scence
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

1. Weigh the heated water phase into a heatproof container. Measure the weight of the water phase and the container before putting it into your double boiler. (This is so we can compensate for evaporation after the heating and holding phase.) Place the container into a double boiler.

2. Weigh the heated oil phase into a heatproof container, then place into the double boiler.

3. When both phases have reached 70˚C, remove from the heat. Pour the water into the oil phase, then mix with a stick blender for about 3 minutes. Then switch to a hand mixer with beaters.

4. When the lotion reaches 45˚C, add the cool down phase and mix well.

As I mentioned yesterday, this lotion can be a bit picky about how you work with it, so please follow this process exactly as written.

So what's it like? It's a light lotion that feels like it sinks in quickly into the skin. It's non-greasy, but spreads well. I've been using it as a light, all over moisturizer during these warmer months, and I love that I can apply it, then play on my iPad shortly thereafter without covering it in grease.

Join me tomorrow as we take a look at why I used each of these ingredients! (And isn't this cupcake napkin cute as heck?)

Monday, July 17, 2017

Here's a post about suppliers from which I've bought interesting and unusual things...

I've been on a bit of a buying binge lately as I have quite a lot of time to formulate in the next few weeks. I thought I'd share with you a few interesting things I found at different suppliers...

If you're looking for sodium coco sulfate to make jelly soap, check out Windy Point in Calgary, Alberta!

I'll be sharing my experiences making these wiggly syndet bars as well as bubble bars in the near future. We're having way too much fun making them! 

I know it's in French, but remember that the INCI name is your friend in this case (as is Google Translate). At Les Ames Fleurs in Quebec, I found...

Sucragel AOF* - I write about this cold emulsifier in this post.

Babassuamidopropyl betaine* - A surfactant like cocamidopropyl betaine but made with babassu oil. (I'll have a post up about my experiences with this one shortly...)

Sodium cocoyl glutamate - A very gentle surfactant used in all kinds of foamy, lathery, bubbly products. I used it in a lovely foaming hand wash and body wash, which you'll see shortly.

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate* - Another gentle surfactant you can use in all kinds of way. Again, you'll see more about this shortly.

Lauryl glucoside* - One of the only ingredients I've found to thicken decyl glucoside. It's this thick paste in a jar!

At Creations from Eden in Edmonton, I found conditioner concentrate, also known as Incroquat CR. I use this in conditioners as it softens hair and reduces static. In my conditioner bars, I use it at 30% in place of Incroquat BTMS-50 as it's cheaper and offers those lovely qualities I just mentioned. I like it at 2% in my leave in conditioners for the same reasons.

At Candora Soap in Ontario, I found cupuacu butter,* which I've ordered to do some Lush duplications and everything else I can do with it!

Please note, this is not an ad or a sponsored post and these aren't affiliate links. I receive nothing from no one if you click through or buy something. Heck, these companies don't even know I've written about them! 

Emulsifier: Simulgreen 18-2 - an ECOcert and Natrue certified emulsifier

I've been working with this emulsifier for more than 18 months, and I'm so excited to finally share it with you! 

Simulgreen 18-2 (INCI: Hydroxystearyl Alcohol and Hydroxystearyl Glucoside) is an ECOcert and Natrue approved emulsifier derived from a vegetable source (castor oil) that contains no ethoxylated ingredients. It's a liquid crystal emulsifier that that can handle electrolytes, like those we find in aloe vera, sodium lactate, certain extracts and cosmeceuticals, magnesium oil, and more.

Use it at 2% to 4% in the heated oil phase of your emulsions. As this can be a less than stable emulsifier, add up to 3% fatty alcohols - like cetyl alcohol, cetearyl alcohol, or behenyl alcohol - in the heated oil phase. Or add up to 0.5% xanthan gum. The recommendation is to heat and hold the two phases, pour the water into the oil phase, then stick blend with for a few minutes (high shear) before switching to a hand mixer with beaters (low shear).

I've seen quite a few people who've said they can't make this emulsifier work, but I've had no problem with it. (This isn't a judgement, just an observation. Look at my struggles with Olivem 1000!) If you follow the recommendations above - use 4% in the heated oil phase, heat and hold, use a fatty alcohol, pour the water into the oil phase, stick blend then mix - your product should work. (You'll see quite a few recipes in action this week!) I have used it with 0.5% xanthan gum, but I prefer the skin feel using a fatty alcohol.

Related posts:
Physics Friday: High shear
Question: Can how and when we mix have an impact on an emulsion?

Why use this emulsifier? Studies have shown that conventional emulsifiers could cause irritation to our skin by disrupting the skin's lipid barrier, while the liquid crystal emulsions mimic the lipid bilayers in our stratum corneum,  which means more actives or lipids from the lotions could penetrate into our skin. Studies have also shown there is a reduction in transepidermal water loss when using a liquid crystal emulsifier and an increase in moisturization of our skin as the lotions hold more water in contact with the skin for a longer period of time.

I like it because it creates much thinner lotions than those I make with Polawax, Ritamulse SCG, or Incroquat BTMS-50. It has a lot of slip and glide, which is great for body butters and facial moisturizers.

If being green or more natural is your thing, Simulgreen 18-2 is a great way to create a more natural lotion when Ritamulse SCG is just too thick. I've never been able to make a thin facial moisturizer with Ritamulse SCG, but I can make awesome ones with this emulsifier.

I would compare this emulsifier to Montanov 68 or Olivem 1000 for viscosity, and I found it was much easier to use than the latter, which seems to confound me no matter what I do!

Join me tomorrow and the rest of the week to take a look at using this new emulsifier in all kinds of facial and body lotions!

Friday, July 14, 2017

Emollients: Plum kernel oil

I admit it, I'm in love with plum kernel oil (INCI: Prunus domestica seed extract). It's light, non-greasy, and smells absolutely of almonds, although I think it's more like marzipan, which I adore! On top of all of that, it has a richness I generally only find with thicker oils. (It reminds me of pomegranate oil as it has an  unctuous silkiness!)

It has a lovely fatty acid profile - 4% to 9% palmitic acid; 70% oleic acid (Omega 9), which softens and moisturizes skin; and 20% linoleic acid (Omega 6), which helps speed up skin's barrier repair mechanisms.

It's a little low on the phytosterols at up to 125 ppm and it has around 180 ppm beta-carotene, the pre-cursor to Vitamin A. It has 0.5% unsaponifiable matter with around 800 ppm squalane. It contains around 700 ppm tocopherols to behave as anti-oxidants, which is quite a lot, hence the longer shelf life.

Use at 1% to 10% in any product you wish in which you could include oils. I'm loving it in light lotions as well as facial sera as it sinks in fast and feels less greasy! It has a shelf life of two years - I know, right, incredible! - but always keep it in a cool, dark place or fridge. The version from Lotioncrafter* is cold pressed.

You can see this oil in action in the anhydrous facial serum I presented at the Handcrafted Soap & Cosmetics Guild conference in Las Vegas in May 2017, as well as some upcoming recipes!

Thanks so much to Jen at Lotioncrafter for sponsoring that presentation. The links you see here to her shop are not affiliate links and I receive nothing if you click through or buy something from her. I present them as my thank you for all her support of the blog and of that presentation. 

References:
PubMed link
Plum oil
Evaluation of bio-active compounds...
Data sheet


Thursday, July 13, 2017

Emollients: Rosehip seed oil

Rosehip seed oil (INCI: Rosa rubiginosa (rosehip) seed oil)
is a light, non-greasy feeling oil that not only moisturizes our skin but promotes a more even skin tone and may help with reducing the appearance of age spots or scars thanks to the beta-carotene, which is a pre-cursor to Vitamin A. It may also speed up wound epithelialization (increased formation of cells to help close the wound) and improve skin texture.

It has an interesting fatty acid profile with 15% oleic acid (Omega 9) to help soften and moisturize skin; 45% linoleic acid (Omega 6) to help speed up skin's barrier repair mechanisms; and 35% linolenic acid (Omega 3) and gamma-linolenic acid to help reduce inflammation and repair skin's barrier repair mechanisms. It has 0.5% phytosterols to help with inflammation, and 0.1% tocopherols to act as anti-oxidants.

The thing we like about rosehip seed oil is the tretinoin or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at 0.335 ppm, which converts into retinol, which helps increase skin thickness, which can reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

You can use it at up to 100% or neat on your skin, but given how orange it is thanks to that lovely beta carotene, I generally suggest no more than 10%. If you wish to use more, do a patch test somewhere on your body to see if it will stain. It is suitable for all skin types

This isn't rosehip oil! Click the link and read more about it. Rosehip seed oil is lighter and has more gamma-linolenic acid. 

It has a shelf life of 6 months, so keep it in the always popular cool, dark place or the fridge. The version we're using from Lotioncrafter* is cold pressed and unrefined.

I've been using in so many products lately, which you'll see shortly, but you can see it now in the anhydrous serum I posted last week!

Jen very kindly sponsored the workshop I presented at the Handcrafted Soap & Cosmetics Guild conference in Las Vegas in May 2017. The links I'm sharing for her shop are done as my thanks for that sponsorship and her ongoing support of the blog. They aren't affiliate links and I get nothing for sharing them with you. Just wanted you to know that! 

References:
Colin's Beauty Pages

Functional Botanicals – their chemistry and effects
Anthony C. Dweck BSc CChem FRSC FLS FRSH

Specialty Fatty Oils for Healthy Skin
Author: Dr. K.-W. Quirin, Flavex Naturextrakte GmbH, Rehlingen, Germany